Wednesday, August 27, 2008

Term 3 Session 4 Camera Settings, Histograms, Batteries, Gorilla Pod

(UPDATE Aug 2012 - I have removed images that won't display correctly but will leave the text here as reference)

Remember ... my site is "" not ""
for an explanation of ".com" etc try
Generic top-level domain <=== at Wikipedia

ISO Settings from Wikipedia...
"For digital photo cameras ("digital still cameras").... ISO setting—is specified by the manufacturer such that .... image files produced by the camera will have a lightness similar to what would be obtained with film of the same rating at the same exposure. The usual design is that the camera's parameters for interpreting the sensor data values ... are fixed, and a number of different ... choices are accommodated by varying the sensor's signal gain ... prior to conversion to digital."
ISO Sensitivity:

"A camera's ISO function sets the light sensitivity of the camera's image sensor (this is similar to the speed rating of FILM). ISO settings are often rated at 100, 200, or 400 but go as high as 800, 1600, and even 3200 on some advanced models. A lower ISO setting is used when capturing overly bright scenes, since it reduces the light sensitivy of the image sensor. This is ideal when shooting at the beach, on a ski slope, or under the midday sun. A higher ISO settings is often used when shooting under dimmer conditions (cloudy days, indoors, etc.) since it increases the light sensitivity of the image sensor. As brightness in a scene is decreased the camera tries to compensate by slowing the shutter speed which in turn lets in more light but increases the risk of motion blur. To prevent this, you can increase the ISO or sensitivity of the camera, which allows the camera to select a higher shutter speed, thus reducing motion blur. "
From:   <<=== Follow this link
For a good explanation of ISO and how to use it.

"White Balance is an aspect of photography that many digital camera owners don’t understand or use - but it’s something well worth learning about as it can have a real impact upon the shots you take.
So for those of you who have been avoiding White Balance - let me introduce you to it. I promise to keep it as simple as possible and keep what follows as useable as I can:
At its simplest - the reason we adjust white balance is to get the colors in your images as accurate as possible."

"What is a Histogram

Histograms are a topic that we could (and probably should) spend a lot of time talking about but let me give you a very brief answer to get you through in the short term.

Histograms are a very useful tool that many cameras offer their users to help them get a quick summary of the tonal range present in any given image.
It graphs the tones in your image from black (on the left) to white (on the right).
The higher the graph at any given point the more pixels of that tone that are present in an image.
So a histogram with lots of dark pixels will be skewed to the left and one with lots of lighter tones will be skewed to the right.
The beauty of a histogram is that the small LCD display on your camera is not really big enough to give you an great review of a picture and you can often get home to find that you’ve over or under exposed an image. Checking the histogram can tell you this while you’re in a position to be able to adjust your settings and take another shot."

A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery but using a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the negative electrode instead of cadmium.
As in NiCd batteries, the positive electrode is nickel oxyhydroxide
(NiOOH). A NiMH battery can have two to three times the capacity of an
equivalent size NiCd. However, compared to the lithium-ion battery, the volumetric energy density is lower and self-discharge is higher.
Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of rechargeable battery in which a lithium ion moves between the anode and cathode. The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging.

Lithium ion batteries are commonly used in consumer electronics. They are currently one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge
when not in use. In addition to uses for consumer electronics,
lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity for defense,
automotive, and aerospace applications due to their high energy
density. However certain kinds of mistreatment may cause Li-ion
batteries to explode.

(NB.I still need to do more research so I can write up about focusing.)

The Original Gorillapod
is ideal for point-and-shoot compact
digital cameras weighing up to 9.7oz (275g).
"The Original Gorillapod is the lightest and most versatile camera tripod available today. Featuring over two dozen flexible leg joints that bend and rotate, the Gorillapod will firmly secure your compact digital camera to virtually any surface — anywhere and everywhere!"

Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Term 3 Session 3 ; Jim's Home page, Blogs, Printers, Using your camera.

(UPDATE Aug 2012 - I have removed images that won't display correctly but will leave the text here as reference)

From the home page of there are links to this blog as well as one called
Jim Bell's U3A Digital Photography Course that goes to the
course web
site, as opposed to this blog.
The web site's content almost never changes unlike the blog that gets updated regularly.

A blog is a website where entries are made in journal style and displayed in a reverse chronological order. ...
About Blogs, Wikipedia says A blog (a contraction of the term "Web log") is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual, with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.
About Web sites, Wikipedia says A website (alternatively, web site or Web site, a back-construction from the proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet.

"Inkjet printers operate by propelling variably-sized droplets of liquid or molten material (ink) onto almost any medium.

"A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper."

Image Editing Software. click on this link to go to the web site reference

"A dye-sublimation printer (or dye-sub printer) is a computer printer which employs a printing process that uses heat to transfer dye to a medium such as a plastic card, printer paper, poster paper, or fabric."

List of digital camera modes
"Most digital cameras support a number of digital camera modes for use in various situations. Professional dSLR cameras modes focus more on manual modes, consumer point-and-shoot cameras focus on automatic modes, and amateur prosumer cameras often have a wide variety of both manual and automatic modes. >
Manual modes give the photographer control over the various parameters of an exposure. They include:
  • P: Program mode offers partial control over shutter speed and aperture.
  • Tv or S: Shutter priority controls the shutter speed, and aperture is calculated by the camera.
  • Av or A: Aperture priority controls the aperture, and shutter speed is calculated by the camera.
  • M: Manual mode controls shutter speed and aperture independently."

Wednesday, August 13, 2008

Term 3 Session 2 File types, Buying a camera

(UPDATE Aug 2012 - I have removed images that won't display correctly but will leave the text here as reference)

Camera cards usually store your pictures as a ".jpg" file.
This is done to save space.
Some cameras also can store in RAW format this takes a lot of space
but is useful for specialist situations where it is
expected the image will be edited.
Remember you can always delete the ones you don't want
but it's really good to have spare cards
even if only to "not keep all your eggs in one basket".

If you are going to edit a photo it's a good idea NOT to save the edit as a .jpg
BUT .. if you're going to email a photo it's a really good idea to save as a .jpg
and to allow some "compression" ...
the people who receive the photo will appreciate it.

Buying a camera... see also:

Jim's Web site ; Digital Photography Review ;

Try to list all the factors you can think of and then answer questions
before you go out to buy the camera.

Wednesday, August 6, 2008

Term 3 Session 1 Digital vs Analogue

(UPDATE Aug 2012 - I have removed images that won't display correctly but will leave the text here as reference)
Welcome all to term 3.

These are notes from the board.

A Vinyl Record is Analogue storage and a CD is digital storage

Film photo is a record of the "Shadow" on the film
the digital photo is made up of pixels (Picture Elements)

Megapixels is a way we describe the number of tiles or pixels that make up the picture.

The more pixels there are ... the bigger the picture can be printed ... but...
At 300dpi (Dots Per Inch) a 2 megapixel image is 5" x 4" .... see below
(Also See .... Earlier notes here)

Screen resolution and displaying digital photos.
To display the "Actual Pixels" or a "Full Size" image on a computer screen
we get the following.

For further info see ... (This Link Here) ...  (And Also Here)